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meine Freunde

3 Mar 2011

test ethics esok!!

aduyai..penatnya hari ni..
pagi start pukul 8 sampai 10 jumpa sir maahad n other lecturers
reason: chosen to be auditee on 7th March..
10-11 am having the csc class(balik awal..=)
11-5 pm bengkel untuk report and budget with HEP
totally exhausted..
esok pagi2 plak TEST ETHICS
MASUK SEMUA CHAPTER OK!!!..
takutnya sy

this is just my summary (biasalah, sy blaja x suka ingat banyak2..ingat keywords je..)

CHAPTER 1 :INTRODUCTION TO ETHICS ( bab ni hanya nk kenalkan kita dengan ethics)
- the concept of ethics (doing the right thing within moral framework)
-ethics theory( explanation of a particular view about what is the nature and basis of good and bad)
-Ethics and morality
     1)religious aspect (relationship human with god)
     2) natural aspect (relationship human with nature)
     3)  individual aspect ( individual relation to themselves)
     4) social aspect (human being relationship with other)
-source of morality (Supernatural theory or God, Natural Law Theory and world value)
-ethics & reason -some explanation is required on why we hold certain moral position

CHAPTER 2 :ETHICAL THEORIES (bab ni memang slalu ditanya)
there are 2 view on ethical theories which are consequantalist( teleological) and non-consequantalist (deontological)
-bagi consequentialist, mereka percaya yang result di akhir adalah penting jadi mereka akan lakukan apa sahaja untuk mencapai matlamat (end will justifies the mean). 2 theory yg menyokong consequentalist which is egoism and utilitarianism
-berlainan plak dgn non -consequentalist sebab mereka yakin yang result di akhir adalah takdir dan kita perlu ada kita punya pegangan untuk mencapai result (perlu ada cara yg betul nk capai matlamat). 3 theory sokong non-consequentialist which are kan't theory, nature theory and virtue theory..

1)EGOISM terbahagi kepada 3
    -individual- everyone ought to act in my own best interest (apa yg saya buat betul, org lain kena buat)
    -personal-i ought to act in my own self interest but make no claim to others ought to do (apa yg saya buat bagi saya adalah betul terpulang org nk percaya atau tidak)
    -universal-everyone has responsibility (contohnya semua org bertanggungjawab utk jaga alam sekitar)

2) UTILITARIANISM THEORY (happiness)
   -act utilitarianism-percaya akan tanpa undang2 juga kegembiraan dpt dicapai contohnya kuasa budi bicara dlm kes membunuh kerana ingin mempertahankan diri)
    -rule utilitarianism-percaya yg undang-undang akan membuat org ramai happy

3)KANT THEORY (pentingkan right motive-act must have moral worth
1)goodwill-perbuatan mesti kena bermoral x kira situasi
2)establish morality by reasoning alone (sebab kita buat tu pun dah cukup utk ckp kita bermoral)
    logically consistent-example sebab ikhlas nk tlg org sentiasa difikir baik
   universalizable-sebab kita diterima sejagat..contoh semua terima yg bg derma baik, membunuh jahat
3)categorical imperative (universal law)-semua org terima perbuatan tu baik
4)practikal imperative-x gunakan org lain
5)duty rather than inclination-buat sesuatu kerana tanggungjawab bukan sebab kecenderungan..or nk ikut org

4)NATURAL LAW(percaya yang hukum alam)
they believe that morality will always embedded with nature and not made by human
lawan hukum alam= x etika
contoh gugurkan bayi tak beretika kerana wanita mengandung secara nature akan bersalin..

5) VIRTUE ETHICS(look at character idealized by person to define ethics)
  intellectual virtue (kehebatan intelek contoh Albert Einstein)
 moral virtue(kehebatan moral contoh Rasulullah0

virtue ni mesti sedang2..x boleh terlampau banyak or terlampau kurang

CHAPTER 3:ETHICS AND RELIGION(banyak pasal agama)
roles of religion 
1)serve solid basis that ethics need (semua agama nk penganutnya buat baik)
2)provide ethical certainties (bila ada x taw pape, rujuk agama)
3) provide religious sanction to back up ethics (agama sediakan balasan baik dan buruk pada tindakan kita)

atheistic world (x percaya adanya agama)..sebabnya mereka percaya yg ethics boleh dpt melalui:
1) relativist (culture can define morality)
2)hedonist (greatest happiness can provide morality ..mcm utilitarianism)
3)perfectionist-goodness can be only achieved by fully utilizing one's intellectual capabilities..mcm virtue ethics)
4) secular humanist-society can define morality

knp secular humanist boleh define morality..sebabnya ialah
1)semua manusia ada perasaan simpati
2)semua manusia akan percayakan logik dan sebab munasabah
3)semua manusia boleh capai persetujuan yg sama
4)semua manusia ada rasa tanggungjawab nk jadikan society lebih beretika
5)manusia akan cuba berubah dari teruk kepada bagus..

kenapa susah sangat nk percaya religion
1) difficulty of proving supernatural existance (susah nk buktikan benda2 ghaib,ALLAH, malaikat)
2)difficulty of providing a rational foundation( susah nk tentukan mcm mana blh dtgnya agama)
3)non religious can be moral (org yg xde agama pun boleh jugak bermoral mcm virtue ethics)
4) which religon??(agama mana nk ikut..banyak kot agama..yg mana satu yg betul?)
5)difficulty of resolving conflict (pandangan tiap2 agama berbeza..bagi agama lain kawin lebih dr 1 xboleh..

LEPAS TU AMBIK LA POINT SIKIT2 YER UTK AGAMA2 MCM BUDDHA.HINDU DAN LAIN2.

CHAPTER 4:ISLAMIC ETHICAL SYSTEM(ni konsep agama islam je..korang mesti taw)
pastikan korang ingat 5 RUKUN ISLAM 
islamic ethics-tawhid(supremacy of allah),harmonious,universality and comprehensive(padat)

CHAPTER 5: ETHICS AND CULTURE( pasal tradisi dan budaya)
culture means to cultivate patterns of human structure
ada 2 jenis iaitu personal ethical relativism(pegangan tradisi individu) and social ethical relativism(pegangan tradisi masyarakat, x buat rasa terasing dr org lain)

REASON FOR ETHICAL RELATIVISM(org yg x support juga dikenali ethical absolutism)
-diversity in moral view
support-budaya banyak pandangan.kalau nk org terima budaya kita,kita kena terima budaya org
against-memang la banyak view, tapi mesti ada integration..mesti ada persamaan budaya

moral uncertainty
support-pandangan pasal isu berbeza, so susah nk bg keputusan,so serahkan saje pada budaya masing2
against-mana boleh senang2 nk serah kan pd budaya, x semestinya susah nk dpt keputusan,keputusan tu takde

situational differences
support-keadaan kita tak sama..kita kena terima budaya org.contoh  pd kita sunat tu moral, tp pd org lain sunat tu boleh sakitkan kanak2
against-biarpun keadaan kita berbeza, kita pasti ada universal law yg semua org terima

ETHICAL ABSOLUTISM-there are absolute thruth to which human being must adhere to be moral..
x percaya pada ethical relativism..

CHAPTER 6: ETHICS IN ADMINISTRATION (lbh pd dilemma public administrators)
dlm nk selesaikan masalah ,public administrator perlu pegang 
1)general public interest
2)goals of policy tmpt dia keje
3)culture of organization
4)org yg akan terlibat

TRAGIC CHOICES-scarce resource and if people do not get the resource, they will suffer greatly
WICKED PROBLEM(masalah yg xde penyelesaian)-too many actor involve, unability to find solution and solution become part of other problem)

mcm mana nk control masalah..
1)governmental -legal theory
2)societal -group theory
3)organization-structure &authority theory
4)individual-responsiveness theory

apa masalah yg dihadapi
1) terpaksa utk buat benda2 x elok 
2)terpaksa buat2 tak nampak
3) ada maklumat pasal keburukan, tp x taw nk bgtaw sape

personal aspect dilemma
mental attitutes-moral ambiguity (kecelaruan pegangan moral),contextual forces, paradoxes of procedure
moral qualities-optimism, courage and fairness with charity

CHAPTER 7: GOOD GOVERNANCE
relationship of firm with affected people and must have legal obligation

theory Corporate GOvernance
1)separate legal entity
2)social regulation is vogue
3)direction to best interest of shareholders
4)domination by elitist

ISSUE 
1)private companies (family-owned)
2)scale and complexity (banyak sangat anak syarikat)
3)significance of institutional investor (sama ke hak investor individu ngan institutional investor)
4)hostile activities of predators(bila syarikat tutup, management baru mungkin akan buang pekerja lama)

TAHU BEZAKAN GOVERNANCE DGN MANAGEMENT

core component (fairness, transparency, accountability and responsibility)

CHAPTER 8: GLOBAL CHALLENGES TO MORALITY

beza antara war,violence and terrorism

violenec-sebarang paksaan fizikal (x semestinya guna senjata) bertujuan utk cederakan org lain
terrorism-menggunakan paksaan atau ancaman utk menjatuhkan org..keupayaan utk timbulkan rasa takut juga dikira terrorist act
war:keganasan bersenjata

3 pandangan tentang war
militarianism-sokong war
just war-war boleh tapi ada syarat
pasifism-x sokong war

JUST WAR THEORY
 ada 2 area-JUS AD BELLUM(sebelum perang) AND JUS IN BELO(semasa perang)

JUS AD BELLUM
-pertahan negara dr diceroboh
-halang pembunuhan ramai2
-campurtangan komunis
-menyahkan pemimpin tirani
-halang guna nuclear weapon
-selamatkan oil supply

concept dlm JUS AD BELLUM
-proportionality-mesti banyak kebaikan dr keburukan
-last resort
-right intention

concept dlm JUS IN BELLO
-proportionality-gunakan keganasan x lebih dr sepatutnya
-discrimination-bezakan combatan and non-combatant

ACTUALLY START JE 2 CHAPTER LAST, SY TAK YAKIN SANGAT..=(
doakan sy..=)

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